Nossas atividades e experiências de investigação têm uma trajetória de duas décadas, com vinculação ao observatório de Violências nas Escolas PUCPR e à Cátedra Unesco Juventude, Educação e Sociedade. Os estudos do grupo têm como foco os direitos humanos, esboçam possibilidades de prevenção e intervenção nos fenômenos das violências no espaço escolar, mediante efetivação de políticas e práticas orientadas nos direitos humanos. As pesquisas têm problematizado questões da garantia de direitos, das práticas curriculares inclusivas em diálogo com a diversidade, da avaliação emancipatória, da educação em direitos humanos, do direito à educação, da formação de professores. E, mais recentemente, temos incluído nos estudos aspectos do direito à educação e do direito à saúde da infância em contextos de pobreza infantil, para contribuir com a formação de profissionais da educação e da saúde que atuam na garantia de direitos da infância.
As investigações desenvolvidas enfatizam as violências institucionais da e na escola, advindas, sobretudo, do campo do currículo e da avaliação educacional. Nas pesquisas, as violências nas escolas são problematizadas, trazendo para a discussão a triangulação entre dados empíricos, traços das políticas educacionais e argumentação sistematizada por autores que estudam a temática. Nas políticas educacionais das últimas décadas observam-se contradições que as atravessam e produzem tensões, incidindo na garantia ou violação de direitos nas escolas. A evidência dessas contradições é perceptível nas diretrizes políticas de currículo e de avaliação, enquanto as primeiras, do currículo, adotam o princípio da diversidade, da garantia de direitos, as segundas, da avaliação, estão marcadas pelos traços da meritocracia, da padronização. Os traços dessas contradições ecoam nas manifestações dos sujeitos ouvidos nas pesquisas realizadas. Assim, a educação em direitos humanos que promove o diálogo com grupos infantis e juvenis se constitui forte possibilidade para ressignificar a escola como espaço de garantia de direitos e justiça, mediante convivência com a diversidade e na diversidade nas práticas curriculares, na perspectiva da interculturalidade crítica.
Projetos desenvolvidos produções vinculadas
1. PROJECT – THE ANALYSIS OF THE PROFILE OF THE ADOLESCENT IN CONFLICT WITH THE LAW. (2005-2006)
The project aimed to understand the Profile of Adolescents in Conflict with Law. The source of data of this study were the records of indirect testimony and the records of violent acts perpetrated by adolescents in conflict with the law in the municipality of Curitiba, forwarded by the Public Prosecutor’s Office and the Judiciary Branch of the Curitiba Court of Adolescent Offenders to the research group, coordinated by Professor Ana Maria Eyng. The study allowed us to understand the occurrences between March 2005 and November 2006, related to 3,881 adolescents that gave their testimony. These records reflect cases of known authorship that are brought to the formal knowledge of authorities. Based on this profile, it was possible to advance the discussion in alternatives to decrease social exclusion and violence in schools, educating the students for freedom and respect in social and family life.
2. PROJECT – REPRESENTATIONS OF PUBLIC-SCHOOL TEACHERS AND STUDENTS ON THE PHENOMENON OF VIOLENCE IN SCHOOLS (2006-2007)
This project aimed to identify the constitutive elements of the social representation of teachers and students about violence in schools. The research problem was: what are the implications of the representations of public-school teachers and students about the phenomenon of violence in actions performed in the school environment? The study was carried out in the second semester of 2006 and in the first half of 2007 in seven public schools in the state of Paraná, embracing students from middle and high school. The age group of the students are: middle school 11 to 14 years old; and high school: 15 to 17 years old. A total of 9,480 students are attended in the middle and high school f all schools investigated, with 264 teachers. Based on this population, the representations of 728 students and 57 teachers about: school, student, teacher, adolescent, and violence were investigated. The study about violence in schools contributed to enhance the knowledge of this phenomenon, thus, supporting teacher training courses. Then, the understanding of this theme allows us to outline and to put in force initial and continuing training projects, aimed to cope with violence in schools. The survey about violence in schools highlighted a set of contradictory thoughts and feelings that students and professional present about the phenomenon of violence.
3. PROJECT – PSYCHOPEDAGOGIC AND SOCIAL MEDIATION IN THE SCHOOL SPACE (2008-2009)
The general objective of project was to evaluate the process of planning, training, and implementation of multidisciplinary mediation teams in schools. The implementation of such teams, proposed in the project, is in accordance with State Regulation no. 15,075/2006. Professionals of pedagogy, psychology, social work, and law are foreseen to compose those teams. Data collection to support the implementation of mediation teams was performed in a public school that attends student of middle (5th to 8th grade) and high school, with a total of 2,005 students enrolled in the school year of 2008, distributed in the three shifts (morning, afternoon, and evening), with 68 teachers and 37 employees of the technical-administrative staff. The survey interviewed 44 teachers, 781 students, 317 parents and guardians, and 12 professionals from the technical-administrative staff, with structured interviews.
4. PROJECT – GOOD QUALITY BASIC EDUCATION FOR ALL: POLICIES AND PRACTICES IN THE CONTEXT OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS ( 2009-2010)
The research project focused on the millennium development goal of quality basic education for all and decree no. 6,094, of April 24, 2007 establishing the Plano de Metas Compromisso Todos pela Educação. The survey aimed to analyze the potentialities and weaknesses of social policies to reduce social inequalities, for greater social inclusion and guarantee of the rights of children and adolescents in the fulfillment of quality basic education for all in public schools. The research was carried out with: 583 students, 21 managers, 376 parents, 52 employees, and 44 teachers from seven municipal public schools and two public state schools located in Curitiba, these schools were choose because they are located in a high vulnerability neighborhood.
5. BASIC EDUCATION OF SOCIAL QUALITY FOR ALL: POLICIES AND PRACTICES IN THE CONTEXT OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS ( 2010-2012)
6. PUBLIC POLICIES, HUMAN RIGHTS, JUSTICE, AND VIOLENCE IN SCHOOLS (2013-2016)
The collection of students’ testimonies about rights, justice, and coexistence was performed with the Délphi method. The scripts of the second phase were based on the systematization and analysis of data collected in the first phase. The collection of testimonies included young students of basic education and higher education. The basic education sample was composed of 420 students in the first phase and 443 students in the second phase. In both phases, students from the two last years of high school from 12 public primary schools provided their testimony. In higher education, 607 students were heard in the first phase and 413 in the second, covering 14 university courses.
7. PROJECT – GUARANTEE OF RIGHTS IN THE DAILY LIFE OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: CONTRIBUTIONS OF PROGRAMS DEVELOPED IN THE STATE AND CIVIL SOCIETY IN THE INTERNATIONAL SPHERE (2016-2018)
The study was carried out under the cooperation agreement between the Inter-American Children’s Institute (IIN), a specialized body of the Organization of American States (OAS) on childhood and adolescence, the Marist International Solidarity Foundation (FMSI), the Paraná Association of Culture (APC) and the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná (PUCPR). The research was carried out in the entire American continent, addressing the study of six programs developed in four countries. Its central purpose is to analyze the contributions of programs developed in the state and civil society in different American countries in order to guarantee children’s rights, acting in the prevention and eradication of violence in their daily life. Data were obtained with individual testimony from 301 participants distributed into three groups: 131 children and adolescents (aged between 10 and 18 years); 94 parents and guardians called as family members and 76 managers, educators, and professional operators called as team.